Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Wagner and Iceland


Wagner's grand opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen returns to the Metropolitan Opera in New York on Saturday in Robert LePage's excitingly technological production. We all know the story, with its stirring Wotan, evil dwarf Alberich, tragic valkyrie Brünnhilde, heroic Siegfried and the cruel dragon he slays. It's the German National Epic.

Even if Wagner's main sources were not ultimately German.

They were Icelandic.

Who is Wotan? None other than the God of Wednesday, Odin. And if you've been reading this blog for any length of time, you'll know that the main source for stories of Odin is the 13th-century Icelandic writer Snorri Sturluson.

In a well-known letter from 1856, Wagner jotted down the names of ten books that inspired him to write The Ring. 

Number three was Jacob Grimm’s German Mythology of 1835, which cites Snorri Sturluson's Edda, the Poetic Edda, Snorri's Heimskringla, and other Icelandic sagas. (In fact, if you take the Icelandic sources out of German Mythology, all that's left is an empty shell.)

Number four on Wagner's list was "Edda" (like most people at the time, he didn't discriminate between Snorri's Edda and the Poetic Edda).

Number five was the Icelandic Volsunga Saga, which Snorri did not write, but which was written in Iceland at roughly the same time Snorri was active. (Some scholars say it is earlier than Snorri's sagas, some say later.)

Number ten on Wagner's list was Heimskringla, Snorri's collection of sixteen sagas about the kings of Norway.

Wagner made this list just after completing Das Rheingold and Die Walküre; he wouldn’t finish Siegfried until 1871 and Götterdämmerung until 1874. The first full performance of the four-opera cycle was in 1876.
It was twenty-five years in the making. The idea for a cycle of operas based on Siegfried—or Sigurd—the Dragon-slayer and the accursed gold ring of the dwarves came to Wagner in 1851. A German translation of the Poetic Edda and some tales from Snorri’s Edda, he wrote, “drew me irresistibly to the Nordic sources of these myths,” the most expansive being the Icelandic Volsunga Saga.

Wagner had, three years before, written a libretto called Siegfried's Death based on the medieval German Nibelungenlied, or "Song of the Nibelungs." This libretto, according to Edward Haymes in his book Wagner's Ring in 1848, is quite similar to Götterdämmerung; "in fact," Haymes told me, "some of the scenes are taken over verbatim."

But Wagner wasn't satisfied. Only after he had discovered what he called "the Nordic sources," Wagner said, "did I recognise the possibility of making him [Siegfried] the hero of a drama; a possibility that had not occurred to me while I only knew him from the medieval Nibelungenlied."

The German "Song of the Nibelungs" was written at about the same time as Snorri was writing his Edda in Icelandic (c. 1220-1241). Some of the same characters appear: Sigurd the Dragon-Slayer (Wagner's Siegfried), Brynhild (Brünnhilde), Gudrun (Gutrune). But half of the "Song" takes place after their deaths; it has no counterpart in Wagner's Ring.

And much that Wagner loved about the Sigurd story exists only in the Icelandic sources: the dragon, the ring, the valkyries, the sibyl; the characters of Odin and the other gods, the giants, the dwarfs, Idunn’s apples, the rainbow bridge, the magical helmet, Valhalla, the Twilight of the Gods.

In his 2003 book, Wagner and the Volsungs: Icelandic Sources of Der Ring des Nibelungen (which is online here: http://www.vsnrweb-publications.org.uk/Wagner.pdf), Icelandic scholar Arni Björnsson concludes that 80 percent of Wagner’s motifs are Icelandic. Five percent are German. Most of the remaining 15 percent are shared, appearing in both the Icelandic and German sources, though some—like the Rhine Maidens—are Wagner’s own invention, for he was nothing if not creative.

Like Snorri, Wagner took bits and pieces of myth and made of them something magical.

Join me again next Wednesday at nancymariebrown.blogspot.com for another adventure in Iceland or the medieval world. And don't forget to enter the raffle for a free, autographed copy of Song of the Vikings. For details, click here.

49 comments:

  1. Having recently seen the Ring cycle, though, I have to say that compared to the Icelandic Odin, Wagner's Wotan is a wuss. Odin at least would have gone down fighting!

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  2. My favorite modern version of this opera is the one starring Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd in "What's Opera, Doc?" from 1957 based (mostly)on Der Ring des Nibelungen. Quite entertaining, actually.

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  3. Lol negative Nancy here. You are a fiction writer so you do fiction? Well you my want to educate yourself on history and my ancient sagas from my ancestors. Cause you're facts are wrong or wait let me say fictional. Are you even Scandinavian probably not being your last name is Brown so Brown nose your face somewhere else thanks. I am not saying the show Vikings is 100 percent correct but Ragnar didn't die of a disease he was captured by King Aella and excited then his son Björn went back to avenge his death by blood eagle I know they said boneless did it but that's not what I had been raised on from our my people's ancient stories.

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  35. Hello Guys! I am Elisa I live in USA I’m 35 Years old, am so happy I got my blank ATM card from blank atm officials. My blank ATM card can withdraw $5,500 daily. I got it from them last week and now I have withdrawn about $350,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it because it is blank just your PIN will be on it, it is not traceable and now I have money for business, shopping and enough money for me and my family to live on.I am really glad and happy, i met Five persons before them and they could not help me. But am happy now they sent the card through FedEx and I got it in two days. Get your own card from them right now they also help in clearing debts from credit card and giving you a good credit score, they are giving it out for small fee to help the poor note they don't give out card for free you paid before getting it, it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught or traced. I’m happy and grateful because they changed my story all of a sudden. The card works in all countries that is the good news intrested persons should contact them via their email: blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com thanks viewers.




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  36. Have you pay your necessary BILLS? Do you need money? Do you want a better way to transform your own life? My name his Elizabeth Maxwell. I am here to share with you about Mr OSCAR WHITE new system of making others rich with not less than two to three days.I was in search of a job opportunity on the internet when i come across his aid on a blogs that i was on to, talking on how he can help the needy with a programmed BLANK ATM CARD.I thought it was a scam or normal gist but i never had a choice than to contact him cause i was seriously in need of Finance for Business.I contacted him on the CARD, and not less than a minute he respond and give me the necessary information’s on how to get the card. My friends, today am a sweet happy woman with good business and a happy family. I charge you not to live by ignorance.Try and get an ATM card today through (MR OSCAR WHITE)and be among the lucky ones who are benefiting from this card. This ATM card is capable of hacking into any ATM machine anywhere in the world.It has really changed my life and now I can say I’m rich because I am a living testimony. The less money I get in a day with this card is $15,000.Every now and then money keep pumping into my account. Although is illegal, there is no risk of being caught, as it is programmed so that it can not trace you, but also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you.. I urge you to contact him on the BLANK ATM CARD. For details on how to get yours today, email hackers Below:

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    ReplyDelete
  37. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting {Blankatmoffice@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with $50,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: Blankatmoffice@gmail.com...
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    ReplyDelete
  38. Hello guys my name is Scott Mcall I wanted to share a testimony of how a good hacker help in making my life a better one I am glad I met them guys I got $15,000USD from them guys If you are interested they perform various hack and they are legit 100%
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  39. HAVE YOU BEEN IN SEARCH FOR GENUINE HACKER'S ONLINE?. HAVE YOU LOST YOUR MONEY TO BINARY OPTION SCAM OR ANY ONLINE SCAM WHATSOEVER?. WELL, YOU HAVE FOUND REDEMPTION .

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  40. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking guy called Mr. Oscar White, he is really good at what he is doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. Hoping and praying it was not fake. One week later i received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $6000. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life with my girlfriend Laurel. So far i have being able to withdraw up to $78000 without any stress of being caught. I don't know why i am posting this here, i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. blank ATM has really change my life. If you want to contact them, Here is the email address: oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com ,whats-app +1(209)-643-1515

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  48. We have a specially programmed ATM Card that can be used to hack ATM Machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe at stores and POS. We sell these cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $5000 on ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores. And also if you are in need of any other Cyber hack services, We are here for you anytime any day.

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